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Chronic subdural hematoma

Definition:

A chronic subdural hematoma is an "old" collection of blood and blood breakdown products between the surface of the brain and its outermost covering (the dura). The chronic phase of a subdural hematoma begins several weeks after the first bleeding.



Alternative Names:

Subdural hemorrhage - chronic; Subdural hematoma - chronic; Subdural hygroma



Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

A subdural hematoma develops when the tiny veins that run between the dura and surface of the brain (bridging veins) tear and leak blood. This is usually the result of a mild head injury.

A collection of blood then forms over the surface of the brain. In a chronic subdural collection, blood leaks from the veins slowly over time, or a fast hemorrhage is left to clear up on its own.

A subdural hematoma is more common in the elderly because of normal brain shrinkage that occurs with aging. This shrinkage stretches and weakens the bridging veins. These veins are more likely to break in the elderly, even after a minor head injury. You or your family may not remember any injury that could explain it.

Risks include:

  • Long term, heavy alcohol use
  • Long-term use of aspirin, anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, or blood thinning (anticoagulant) medication such as warfarin
  • Diseases associated with reduced blood clotting
  • Head injury
  • Old age


Symptoms:

In some cases, there may be no symptoms However, depending on the size of the hematoma and where it presses on the brain, any of the following symptoms may occur:

  • Confusion or coma
  • Decreased memory
  • Difficulty speaking or swallowing
  • Difficulty walking
  • Drowsiness
  • Headache
  • Seizures
  • Weakness or numbness of arms, legs, face


Signs and tests:

Your health care provider will ask questions about your medical history. The physical exam will carefully check your brain and nervous system to check for problems with:

  • Balance
  • Coordination
  • Mental functions
  • Sensation
  • Strength
  • Walking

Because the symptoms and signs are often subtle, if there is any suspicion of a hematoma, a head CT or head MRI scan will be done to further evaluate your symptoms.



Treatment:

The goal of treatment is to control symptoms and reduce or prevent permanent damage to the brain. Anticonvulsant medications such as carbamazepine, lamotrigine or levetiracetam may be used to control or prevent seizures.

Surgery may be needed. This may include drilling small holes in the skull to relieve pressure and allow blood and fluids to be drained. Large hematomas or solid blood clots may need to be removed through a larger opening in the skull (craniotomy ).

Hematomas that do not cause symptoms may not require treatment.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

Chronic subdural hematomas that cause symptoms usually do not heal on their own over time. They often require surgery, especially when there are neurologic problems, seizures, or chronic headaches.

Some chronic subdural hematomas return after drainage, and more surgeries may be needed.



Complications:
  • Permanent brain damage
  • Persistent symptoms
  • Seizures


Calling your health care provider:

Call your doctor or nurse immediately if you or someone else has symptoms of chronic subdural hematoma. For example, call if you see symptoms of confusion, weakness, or numbness weeks or months after a head injury in an older person.

Take the person to the emergency room or call 911 if the person:



Prevention:

Avoid head injuries by using seat belts, bicycle and motorcycle helmets, and hard hats when appropriate.



References:

Stippler M. Trauma of the nervous system: craniocerebral trauma.In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 50B.

Ling GSF. Traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 406.




Review Date: 8/28/2012
Reviewed By: David C. Dugdale, III, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of General Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine; Daniel B. Hoch, PhD, MD, Assistant Professor of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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