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Health Information Encyclopedia Aarskog syndrome 11/14/2011
Facial-digital-genital syndrome Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Aarskog syndrome is a genetic disorder that is linked to the X chromosome. It affects mainly males, but females may have a milder form. The condition is caused by changes (mutations) in a gene called "faciogenital dysplasia" ( FGD1 ).
Health Information Encyclopedia Aase syndrome 08/04/2011
Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia/Triphalangeal thumb syndrome Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Most cases of Aase syndrome occur without a known reason and are not passed down through families (inherited). However, some cases have been shown to be inherited. The anemia in Aase syndrome is caused by poor development of the bone marrow, which is where blood cells are formed.
Health Information Encyclopedia Abdominal aortic aneurysm 07/10/2012
Aneurysm - aortic; AAA Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The exact cause is unknown, but risk factors for developing an abdominal aortic aneurysm include: Emphysema Genetic factors High blood pressure High cholesterol Male gender Obesity Smoking An abdominal aortic aneurysm can develop in anyone, but is most often seen in males over age 60 who have one or more risk factors.
Health Information Encyclopedia ABO incompatibility 06/05/2012
A, B, and O are the three major blood types. The types are based on small substances (molecules) on the surface of the blood cells. When people who have one blood type receive blood from someone with a different blood type, it may cause their immune system to react. This is called ABO incompatibility. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The different blood types are: Type A Type B Type AB Type O People who have one blood type may form proteins (antibodies) that cause their immune system to react against one or more of the other blood types.
Health Information Encyclopedia Abscess 09/02/2012
An abscess is a collection of pus in any part of the body that, in most cases, causes swelling and inflammation around it. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Abscesses occur when an area of tissue becomes infected and the body's immune system tries to fight it. White blood cells move through the walls of the blood vessels into the area of the infection and collect in the damaged tissue. During this process, pus forms. Pus is the buildup of fluid, living and dead white blood cells, dead tissue, and bacteria or other foreign substances.
Health Information Encyclopedia Absent pulmonary valve 02/07/2012
Absent pulmonary valve syndrome; Congenital absence of the pulmonary valve; Pulmonary valve agenesis Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Absent pulmonary valve occurs when the pulmonary valve doesn't form or develop properly while the baby is in the mother's womb.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acanthosis nigricans 07/11/2012
Acanthosis nigricans is a skin disorder in which there is darker, thick, velvety skin in body folds and creases. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acanthosis nigricans can affect otherwise healthy people, or it can be related to medical problems. Some cases are genetically inherited. The condition is most commonly seen among people of African descent, in part because it is easier to see in darker skin. Obesity can lead to acanthosis nigricans, as can some endocrine disorders.
Health Information Encyclopedia Achalasia 02/18/2012
Esophageal achalasia Causes: A muscular ring at the point where the esophagus and stomach come together (lower esophageal sphincter) normally relaxes during swallowing. In people with achalasia, this muscle ring does not relax as well. In addition, the normal muscle activity of the esophagus (peristalsis) is reduced.
Health Information Encyclopedia Achilles tendinitis 08/11/2012
Tendinitis of the heel Causes, incidence, and risk factors: There are two large muscles in the calf. These muscles are important for walking. They create the power needed to push off with the foot or go up on the toes.
Health Information Encyclopedia Achondrogenesis 08/02/2011
Achondrogenesis is a rare type of growth hormone deficiency in which there is a defect in the development of bone and cartilage. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Achondrogenesis is inherited, which means it is passed down through families. Some types are known to be recessive, meaning both parents carry the defective gene and the chance for a subsequent child to be affected is about 25%. Symptoms: Very short trunk, arms, legs, and neck Head appears large in relation to the trunk Small lower jaw Narrow chest Signs and tests: X-rays show bone problems associated with the condition.
Health Information Encyclopedia Achondroplasia 11/13/2011
Achondroplasia is a disorder of bone growth that causes the most common type of dwarfism. Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Achondroplasia is one of a group of disorders called chondrodystrophies or osteochondrodysplasias. Achondroplasia may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, which means that if a child gets the defective gene from one parent, the child will have the disorder. If one parent has achondroplasia, the infant has a 50% chance of inheriting the disorder.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acidosis 11/16/2011
Acidosis is a condition in which there is too much acid in the body fluids. It is the opposite of alkalosis (a condition in which there is too much base in the body fluids). Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Acidosis occurs when acid builds up or when bicarbonate (a base) is lost. Acidosis is classified as either respiratory acidosis or metabolic acidosis .
Health Information Encyclopedia Acne 11/20/2012
Acne vulgaris; Cystic acne; Pimples; Zits Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acne occurs when tiny holes on the surface of the skin become clogged. These holes are called pores. Each pore opens to a follicle. A follicle contains a hair and an oil gland. The oil released by the gland helps remove old skin cells and keeps your skin soft.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acoustic neuroma 05/22/2012
Vestibular schwannoma; Tumor - acoustic; Cerebellopontine angle tumor; Angle tumor Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acoustic neuromas have been linked with the genetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2).
Health Information Encyclopedia Acoustic trauma 08/30/2012
Injury - inner ear; Trauma - inner ear; Ear injury Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acoustic trauma is a common cause of sensory hearing loss . Damage to the hearing mechanisms within the inner ear may be caused by: An explosion near the ear Gunshots Long-term exposure to loud noises (such as loud music or machinery) Symptoms: Hearing loss Usually partial and involving high-pitched sounds May slowly get worse Noises, ringing in the ear ( tinnitus ) Signs and tests: The health care provider will usually suspect acoustic trauma if hearing loss occurs after noise exposure.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acquired platelet function defect 02/28/2011
Acquired qualitative platelet disorders; Acquired disorders of platelet function Causes, incidence, and risk factors: With platelet disorders, there may be too many or too few platelets, or platelets that do not function well.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acrodermatitis 05/15/2013
Papular acrodermatitis of childhood; Gianotti-Crosti syndrome; Acrodermatitis - infantile lichenoid; Acrodermatitis - papular infantile; Papulovesicular acro-located syndrome; Acrodermatitis enteropathica Causes: The cause of acrodermatitis is poorly understood, but its link with other infections is well-documented.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acrodysostosis 11/02/2012
Arkless-Graham; Acrodysplasia; Maroteaux-Malamut Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Most patients with acrodysostosis have no family history of the disease. However, sometimes the condition is passed down from parent to child. Parents with the condition have a 1 in 2 chance of passing the disorder to their children.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acromegaly 12/11/2011
Somatotroph adenoma; Growth hormone excess; Pituitary giant Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acromegaly occurs in about 6 of every 100,000 adults. It is caused by abnormal production of growth hormone after the skeleton and other organs finish growing. Excessive production of growth hormone in children causes gigantism rather than acromegaly.
Health Information Encyclopedia Actinic keratosis 11/20/2012
Solar keratosis; Sun-induced skin changes - keratosis; Keratosis - actinic (solar) Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight. You are more likely to develop this if you: Have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or blond or red hair Had a kidney or other transplant Take medicines that suppress the immune system Spend a lot of time each day in the sun (for example, if you work outdoors) Had many, severe sunburns early in life Are older Symptoms: Actinic keratosis is usually found on the face, scalp, back of the hands, chest, or places that are often in the sun.
Health Information Encyclopedia Actinomycosis 12/06/2011
Lumpy jaw Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Actinomycosis is usually caused by an anaerobic bacteria called Actinomyces israelii , which is a common and normally not disease-causing (nonpathogenic) organism found in the nose and throat. Because of the bacteria's normal location in the nose and throat, actinomycosis most commonly appears in the face and neck.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acute adrenal crisis 12/11/2011
Adrenal crisis; Addisonian crisis; Acute adrenal insufficiency Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The two adrenal glands are located on top of the kidneys. They consist of the outer portion, called the cortex, and the inner portion, called the medulla. The cortex produces three types of hormones, all of which are called corticosteroids.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acute arterial occlusion - kidney 06/08/2011
Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery Causes, incidence, and risk factors: The kidneys are very sensitive to the amount of blood that flows to them. The main artery that supplies blood to the kidney is called the renal artery. Any reduction of blood flow through the renal artery can impair kidney function.
Health Information Encyclopedia Acute cerebellar ataxia 02/27/2013
Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA Causes, incidence, and risk factors: Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. Viral infections that may cause this include chickenpox , Coxsackie disease, Epstein-Barr, and echovirus .
Health Information Encyclopedia Acute cholecystitis 08/11/2011
Cholecystitis - acute Causes, incidence, and risk factors: In 90% of cases, acute cholecystitis is caused by gallstones in the gallbladder. Other causes include severe illness and (rarely) tumors of the gallbladder. Acute cholecystitis occurs when bile becomes trapped in the gallbladder. The buildup of bile causes irritation and pressure in the gallbladder.
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