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Health Information Encyclopedia Aflatoxin 01/30/2013
Aflatoxins are toxins produced by a mold that grows in nuts, seeds, and legumes. Function: Although aflatoxins are known to cause cancer in animals, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows them at low levels in nuts, seeds, and legumes because they are considered "unavoidable contaminants." The FDA believes occasionally eating small amounts of aflatoxin poses little risk over a lifetime. It is not practical to attempt to remove aflatoxin from food products in order to make them safer.
Health Information Encyclopedia Age-appropriate diet for children 09/21/2011
Diet - age appropriate Function: Food Sources: Side Effects: Recommendations: BIRTH TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE During the first 4 - 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. If breastfeeding, a newborn may need to nurse 8 - 12 times per day (every 2 - 4 hours), or on demand.
Health Information Encyclopedia Caffeine in the diet 04/30/2013
Diet - caffeine Function: Caffeine is absorbed and passes quickly into the brain. It does not collect in the bloodstream or get stored in the body. It leaves the body in the urine many hours after it has been consumed. There is no nutritional need for caffeine.
Health Information Encyclopedia Calcium in diet 02/14/2011
Diet - calcium Function: Calcium is one of the most important minerals for the the human body. Calcium helps form and maintain healthy teeth and bones. Proper levels of calcium over a lifetime can help prevent osteoporosis . Calcium helps your body with: Building strong bones and teeth Clotting blood Sending and receiving nerve signals Squeezing and relaxing muscles Releasing hormones and other chemicals Keeping a normal heartbeat Food Sources: CALCIUM AND DAIRY PRODUCTS Many foods contain calcium, but dairy products are the best source.
Health Information Encyclopedia Carbohydrates 05/16/2012
Starches; Simple sugars; Sugars; Complex carbohydrates; Diet - carbohydrates; Simple carbohydrates Function: The primary function of carbohydrates is to provide energy for the body, especially the brain and the nervous system. An enzyme called amylase helps break down carbohydrates into glucose (blood sugar), which is used for energy by the body.
Health Information Encyclopedia Celiac disease - nutritional considerations 02/19/2012
Celiac disease is an immune disorder passed down through families. Gluten is a protein found in wheat, barley, rye, or sometimes oats (including medications). When a person with celiac disease eats or drinks anything containing gluten, the immune system responds by damaging the lining of the intestinal tract. This damage affects the body's ability to absorb nutrients. For specific information about the disease (including symptoms and treatment), see: Celiac disease .
Health Information Encyclopedia Chloride in diet 02/18/2013
Chloride is found in many chemicals and other substances in the body. It is an important part of the salt found in many foods and used in cooking. Function: Chloride is needed to keep the proper balance of body fluids. It is an essential part of digestive (stomach) juices. Food Sources: Chloride is found in table salt or sea salt as sodium chloride. It is also found in many vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives.
Health Information Encyclopedia Chromium in diet 02/18/2013
Diet - chromium Function: Chromium is important in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates . Chromium stimulates fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis, which are important for brain function and other body processes. Chromium is also important in the breakdown (metabolism) of insulin. Food Sources: The best source of chromium is brewer's yeast, but many people do not use brewer's yeast because it causes bloating ( abdominal distention ) and nausea .
Health Information Encyclopedia Cooking utensils and nutrition 04/30/2013
Cooking utensils can have an effect on your nutrition. Function: Pots, pans, and other tools used in cooking often do more than just hold the food. The material that they are made from can leach into the food that is being cooked. Common materials used in cookware and utensils are: Aluminum Copper Iron Lead Stainless steel Teflon™ (polytetrafluoroethlyene) Both lead and copper have been linked to illness. Food Sources: Cooking utensils can affect any cooked foods.
Health Information Encyclopedia Copper in diet 02/18/2013
Diet - copper Function: Copper works with iron to help the body form red blood cells. It also helps keep the blood vessels, nerves, immune system, and bones healthy. Food Sources: Oysters and other shellfish , whole grains, beans, nuts, potatoes, and organ meats (kidneys, liver) are good sources of copper. Dark leafy greens, dried fruits such as prunes, cocoa, black pepper, and yeast are also sources of copper in the diet.
Health Information Encyclopedia Cow's milk - infants 08/02/2011
Cow's milk - infants Recommendations: Cow's milk is not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for children under 1 year old. Infants fed whole cow's milk don't get enough vitamin E , iron , and essential fatty acids. They also get too much protein , sodium, and potassium. These levels may be too high for the infant's system to handle. Also, whole cow's milk protein and fat are more difficult for an infant to digest and absorb. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that infants be fed breast milk or iron-fortified formula during the first 12 months of life.
Health Information Encyclopedia Cystic fibrosis - nutritional considerations 05/16/2012
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a potentially life-threatening disease that causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract. Persons with cystic fibrosis need to eat high calorie and high protein foods throughout the day. This article discusses the nutritional needs for persons with CF. For specific information about the disease itself, see the article on cystic fibrosis . Function: Your pancreas is an organ that sits in your belly behind your stomach.
Health Information Encyclopedia Diabetes diet - gestational 08/07/2012
Gestational diabetes diet Recommendations: The best way to improve your diet is by eating a variety of healthy foods.
Health Information Encyclopedia Diabetes diet - type 2 07/26/2011
Type 2 diabetes diet; Diet - diabetes - type 2 Function: If you have type 2 diabetes , your main focus is often on weight control. Most people with this disease are overweight. You can improve blood sugar (glucose) levels by following a meal plan that has: Fewer calories An even amount of carbohydrates (30 - 45 grams per meal) Healthy monounsaturated fats Examples of foods that are high in monounsaturated fats include peanut or almond butter, almonds, and walnuts.
Health Information Encyclopedia Diarrhea in children - diet 11/07/2011
Diarrhea in children and babies is the passage of loose stools. Side Effects: Recommendations: Diarrhea has many causes, including: Antibiotics Consuming too much fruit or fruit juice Food sensitivity Illness Infection Diet: What the child eats or drinks may make diarrhea worse. Changing the diet may relieve some types of diarrhea. In most cases, you should continue feeding your baby or child as usual. Most children can keep up with the nutrients they lose through diarrhea if they increase the amount of food they take in.
Health Information Encyclopedia Diet - chronic kidney disease 09/21/2011
Renal disease - diet; Kidney disease - diet Function: The purpose of this diet is to maintain a balance of electrolytes, minerals, and fluid in patients who have chronic kidney disease or who are on dialysis.
Health Information Encyclopedia Diet - liver disease 04/15/2013
Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet helps the liver function and protects it from working too hard. Function: Proteins normally help the body repair tissue. They also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with badly damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Dietary changes for liver disease may involve: Cutting down the amount of protein you eat.
Health Information Encyclopedia Fiber 08/14/2012
Diet - fiber; Roughage; Bulk Function: Dietary fiber adds bulk to your diet. Because it makes you feel full faster, it can be helpful in controlling weight. Fiber aids digestion, helps prevent constipation , and is sometimes used for the  treatment of diverticulosis , diabetes , and heart disease .
Health Information Encyclopedia Fluoride in diet 06/14/2013
Diet - fluoride Function: Small amounts of fluoride help reduce tooth decay . Adding fluoride to tap water (called fluoridation) helps reduce cavities in children by more than half. Fluorides also help maintain bone structure. Low doses of fluoride salts may be used to treat conditions that cause faster-than-normal bone loss, such as menopause.
Health Information Encyclopedia Folic acid in diet 02/18/2013
Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. It is the man-made (synthetic) form of folate that is found in supplements and added to fortified foods. Folate is a generic term for both naturally occurring folate found in foods and folic acid. Folic acid is water-soluble. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve in water. Leftover amounts of the vitamin leave the body through the urine. That means your body does not store folic acid and you need a continuous supply of the vitamin in the foods you eat.
Health Information Encyclopedia Food additives 06/17/2012
Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. Direct food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients Help process or prepare the food Keep the product fresh Make the food more appealing Direct additives may be man-made or natural. Natural additives include: Adding herbs or spices to foods Pickling foods in vinegar Using salt to preserve meats Indirect food additives are substances that may be found in food during or after it is processed.
Health Information Encyclopedia Food jags 09/21/2011
Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods Function: At times children's eating habits are a way for them to feel independent. This marks normal development in children. Food Sources: Side Effects: Recommendations: If the preferred food is nutritious and easy to prepare, continue to offer it along with a variety of other foods at each meal.
Health Information Encyclopedia Food labeling 06/08/2012
Nutrition labeling Function: Serving size: Based on an average portion size. Similar food products have similar serving sizes to make comparison between products easier. Amounts per serving: The total calories and the calories from fat are listed. These numbers will help consumers make decisions about fat intake. The list of nutrients (total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrate , dietary fiber , sugars , protein ) includes those most important to the health of today's consumer.
Health Information Encyclopedia Food safety 06/08/2012
Food - hygiene and sanitation Function: Food can be contaminated in many different ways. Some food products may already contain bacteria or parasites. The germs can be spread during the packaging process if the food products are not handled properly. Failure to cook or store the food properly can cause further contamination.
Health Information Encyclopedia Genetically engineered foods 07/05/2012
Genetically engineered foods have had foreign genes (genes from other plants or animals) inserted into their genetic codes. Genetic engineering can be done with plants, animals, or microorganisms. Historically, farmers bred plants and animals for thousands of years to produce the desired traits. For example, they produced dogs ranging from poodles to Great Danes, and roses from sweet-smelling miniatures to today's long-lasting, but scent-free reds. Selective breeding over time created these wide variations, but the process depended on nature to produce the desired gene.
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