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Throat anatomy
Throat anatomy


Laryngitis

Definition:

Laryngitis is swelling and irritation (inflammation) of the voice box (larynx). Laryngitis is usually associated with hoarseness or loss of voice.



Alternative Names: Hoarseness

Causes, incidence, and risk factors:

The voice box (larynx) is located at the top of the airway to the lungs (trachea). The larynx contains the vocal cords. When the vocal cords become inflamed or infected, they swell. This can cause hoarseness. Sometimes the airway can get blocked.

The most common form of laryngitis is an infection caused by a virus, such as cold or flu viruses. It may also be caused by:

Laryngitis often occurs with an upper respiratory infection .

Several forms of laryngitis occur in children that can lead to dangerous or fatal respiratory blockage. These forms include:



Symptoms:
  • Fever
  • Hoarseness
  • Swollen lymph nodes or glands in the neck


Signs and tests:

A physical exam can find whether hoarseness is caused by a respiratory tract infection.

Patients with hoarseness that lasts more than a month (especially smokers) will need to see an ear, nose, and throat doctor (otolaryngologist) for tests of the throat and upper airway.



Treatment:

Common laryngitis is often caused by a virus, therefore antibiotics likely will not help. Your health care provider will make this decision.

Resting your voice helps to reduce inflammation of the vocal cords. A humidifier may soothe the scratchy feeling that comes with laryngitis. Decongestants and pain medicines may relieve the symptoms of an upper respiratory infection.



Support Groups:



Expectations (prognosis):

Laryngitis that is not caused by a serious condition often gets better on its own.



Complications:

In rare cases, severe respiratory distress develops. This requires immediate medical attention.



Calling your health care provider:

Call your health care provider if:

  • A small child who is not teething has difficulty breathing, swallowing, or is drooling
  • A child less than 3 months old has hoarseness
  • Hoarseness has lasted for more than 1 week in a child, or 2 weeks in an adult


Prevention:
  • Try to avoid people who have upper respiratory infections during cold and flu season.
  • Wash your hands often.
  • Do not strain your voice.
  • Stopping smoking can help prevent tumors of the head and neck or lungs, which can lead to hoarseness.


References:

Merati AL. Acute and chronic laryngitis. Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund VJ et al. eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2010; chap 63.

Schwartz SR, Cohen SM, Dailey SH, et al. Clinical practice guideline: hoarseness (dysphonia). Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;141(3 Suppl 2):S1-S31.




Review Date: 11/10/2012
Reviewed By: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Assistant in Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, David R. Eltz, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.

The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. © 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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